All EM field testing should be performed in accordance with the relevant national legislation and the EU and international regulations. In this way, it may be considered that the tests have a repeatability property, where the other side can repeat certain measurement steps and obtain the same or very similar results.
In addition to obtaining the testing results , which is the principle goal of each measurement, it is necessary to show in a transparent manner the conformity of each testing step with the relevant legal provisions.
In order to achieve this, the state authorities continuously monitor and manage regulations defining the basic steps of the EM field testing. The necessary provisions are set out in the relevant laws and regulations, while technical details are regulated by technical standards, proposed by the expert bodies of the relevant state authorities.
Based on the Law on Electronic Communications ("Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia", Nos. 44/10, 60/13-US and 62/14), RATEL measures the level of EM fields in accordance with the regulations in effect.
Additionally, the legal framework in the field of EM field testing has been established in the Republic of Serbia by the Law on Protection against Non-Ionizing Radiation ("Official Gazette of RS", No. 36/09).
The Law regulates the conditions and measures for protecting human health and the environment from harmful effects of the non-ionizing radiation, during the use of non-ionizing radiation sources, or when the source of the EM field is used.
Protection against non-ionizing radiation is based on the following principles:
• the principle of prohibition - the exposure to non-ionizing radiation above the prescribed limit and any unnecessary exposure to non-ionizing radiation is not allowed;
• the principle of proportionality - the conditions and the permissibility of the use of sources of non-ionizing radiation of special interest are determined and assessed according to the benefits of their use for the society, in relation to the potential risks from the adverse effects that may occur due to their use, taking into account the level and duration of the population exposure in the specific case, the health structure of the potentially exposed population, the way, the time and the place of use of such source, the presence of other sources with different frequencies, and other relevant circumstances of the specific case;
• public principle – the data on non-ionizing radiation are available to the public.
Also, the Law prescribes protection measures against non-ionizing radiation, supervision, jurisdiction for resolving complaints and penal provisions.
In addition to the Law on Protection against Non-Ionizing Radiation, the way of examining the EM field is regulated in greater detail by the secondary legislation.
The Rulebook on the Limits of Exposure to Non-Ionizing Radiation ("Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia", no. 104/09) prescribes the limits of exposure to non-ionizing radiation, the basic limitations and reference limit levels of exposure of the population to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields of different frequencies that can be considered as safe for the population’s health. During the examination of the EM field, the obtained results are compared with the reference field levels and, accordingly, the appropriate protective measures are taken.
This document defines the reference level of the field for each individual frequency, both in the low and high frequency ranges, the reference levels for the general population, and the procedure for checking whether the basic limitations have been exceeded.
Within the European Union, a single legal framework has been established for all EU members, based on the recommendations of the European Commission. The most important recommendation concerning EM fields and the general population is the 1999/519/EC Recommendation of the Council on Limiting the Exposure of the General Population to Electromagnetic Fields (from 0 Hz to 300 GHz).
In addition to the European Union regulations, the recommendations of the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) also apply, providing appropriate reference in the field of testing of and protection against EM fields, based on scientific evidence.
Standards for Testing
Within the EU regulatory framework, a number of technical standards are established, the so-called European Standards, defining the tests themselves. They are governed by CEN (European Committee for Standardization), CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization) and ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute).
The Republic of Serbia has adopted, to the greatest extent, all these standards as national standards, which are prescribed in the laws and regulations as mandatory. Also, special standards have been adopted, covering the testing of the low and the high frequencies, and, additionally, the standards related to a specific type of radiation sources are also frequently adopted.
The national legislation uses the Basic Standard for Measuring Procedures and Calculation of Exposure of People to Electric, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields (from 0 Hz to 300 GHz) - Amendment 1 - SRPS EN 50413: 2010 / A1: 2014, which defines the HF field testing.